Sources & Further Reading

Against All Odds header

Most of the portraits are cropped from the composite portraits of the 1874, 1880, 1882, and 1884 state legislatures. Unless otherwise noted, all other portraits are from public domain books and newspapers.

Apart from sources like newspapers, census records, and the Mississippi House and Senate journals (see excerpts below), the following books contain a great deal of information about these men (ranging from racist opinions of their time to modern understandings), and you will find quotes from them scattered throughout the individual pages.

  • Behrend, Justin. Reconstructing Democracy: Grassroots Black Politics in the Deep South after the Civil War. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 2017.
  • Foner, Eric. Freedom’s Lawmakers: A Directory of Black Officeholders during Reconstruction. Baton Rouge: LSU Press, 1993.
  • Montgomery, Frank A. Reminiscences of a Mississippian in Peace and War. Cincinnati: Robert Clarke, 1901.
  • Satcher, Buford. Blacks in Mississippi Politics 1865-1900. Washington, D.C.: University Press of America, 1978.
  • Thompson, Patrick H. The History of Negro Baptists in Mississippi. Jackson: R. W. Bailey Printing, 1898.
  • Wharton, Vernon Lane. The Negro in Mississippi: 1865-1890. New York: Harper & Row, 1965.