George Washington Albright (Marshall County)


George Washington Albright

State Senate: 1874-1879

Born: August 15, 1846 near Holly Springs, MS
Died: 1944

According to biographical information in the Chicago Defender and the Daily Worker, Albright was born on August 15, 1846 on the Ike Marr plantation near Holly Springs to parents enslaved by different owners. When he was 11 years old, his father was sold to Texas. His father was later killed at Vicksburg after escaping to join the Union army.

Albright was taught to read by his mother, who worked in the kitchen, listened to the white children doing their lessons, and picked up what she could to teach herself and her son. When he was 15, he became a runner for Lincoln’s Legal Loyal League, an underground network to spread news to other enslaved people.

Besides his work in the legislature, Albright was a prominent figure in education, helping to bring in teachers from the North and serving as trustee of the State Normal School. He also helped to organize a volunteer militia, for which he was targeted by the Ku Klux Klan.

On the 1870 census, Albright was living in Marshall County with his wife, Maria Hale (m. November 15, 1869), and their unnamed infant daughter. His occupation was recorded as “farmer.”

By the time of the 1880 census, Albright was living in Elmendaro, Kansas, with a second wife, Josephine Hardy, daughter Eliza ( presumably the infant from the 1870 census), and son Joseph Leroy Albright (1878-1932). Josephine is recorded as “mulatto” on this census, but she appears on subsequent census records as “white.”

Albright continued to be active in politics in Kansas. According to a September 2, 1882 article in the Emporia Daily News, he appeared at the Lyon County Republican convention. He is mentioned several times in the article, most notably: “G. W. Albright took the floor and ably advocated the cause of Col. Feighan, bringing down the house several times with loud and boisterous applause and laughter.” It also seems that he ran for state senator in 1884, though he withdrew to support another candidate.

By 1896, Albright had moved to Los Angeles, where newspapers refer to him as a “colored orator”; one article calls him the “Kansas Cyclone.” He appears on the 1910 census in Los Angeles with wife Josephine, daughter Crystal Frances Albright (1889-1990), and son Wendell Truman Phillips Albright (1891-1959).

On the 1920 census, Albright is listed as the proprietor of a rooming house in Pueblo, Colorado. He is recorded as married, though Josephine appears in Los Angeles with Crystal and Wendell on the 1920 census.

In 1930, Albright is still living in Pueblo, though he is listed as divorced and retired. Josephine is again listed in Los Angeles, this time with Joseph and Wendell. Josephine was still living with Wendell in Los Angeles on the 1940 census, on which George W. Albright does not appear.

"Have we not, let me ask, borne all the burdens that a race can bear for our country?" -G. W. Albright, 1883

“George Albright was a negro who was above an average in intelligence. He was a willing and eager tool in the hands of Gill, whose school he had attended. Whatever his political master ordered, George tried his utmost to carry out. He was a member of the state senate in 1874 and 1875, his name having been put on the ticket, it is said, at the instance of Mrs. Gill. George married one of Gill’s teachers, Josephine Hardy, a Northern white woman. He had a wife belonging to his own race, but he divorced her in order to marry the Hardy woman. (Footnote: It was stated by negroes at the time that Albright hired a negro man to force his wife into a compromising position so that he could have some reason for securing a divorce.) After their marriage, they went to Mt. Pleasant, where he was indicted by the Federal grand jury for selling whiskey. He was imprisoned and fined $100. After this they went to Chicago, where their conduct was so disgraceful that they were compelled to leave the city. (Footnote: This information was given by Mrs. L. A. Fant.) They then removed to Kansas. Nothing further is known of them.”
(Ruth Watkins, “Reconstruction in Marshall County,” Publications of the Mississippi Historical Society, Volume 12, 1912 – please remember that accounts like this represent the racial biases of the people who wrote them and gave the information for them)

"When I knew Granddad he was always fighting for the black man."
(William Lincoln Dunlap, son of Eliza Albright and grandson of G. W. Albright, quoted in Sana Butler, Sugar of the Crop: My Journey to Find the Children of Slaves, Chapter 11, 2009)

“Mrs. Burch was then one of a handful of African American teachers who began integrating the Los Angeles Unified School District. She began counseling in 1955 and received an MS in Counseling from USC in 1963. Mrs. Burch served as a Head Counselor and established and ran the Model Demonstration College Advisement Center, which became a valuable resource to help inner city students in grades 3-12 gain access to higher education.”
(Excerpt from the obituary of Josephine Marshall Burch, Albright’s granddaughter; Los Angeles Times, 21 Feb 2017)



Signature of George Washington Albright from an 1874 petition to Governor Ames


Thanks to Karen Burch for sending me the text of this June 18, 1937 Daily Worker interview with Albright.


A 91-year-old Negro who played a major role in the events of the Civil War and Reconstruction passed through New York this week on his way from Colorado to Washington and told his story in an extended interview with the Daily Worker.

At the home of his granddaughter in Jamaica, Long Island, George Washington Albright, born a slave in Mississippi, related a personal history which is at the same time one of the most revolutionary eras in America’s past.

At 19, Albright was a secret runner for the Lincoln League, carrying from plantation to plantation the news that the Emancipation Proclamation had been signed in Washington. In 1865 he was a field hand on a cotton plantation; nine years later he entered the Mississippi Senate as a member of the Reconstruction government.

Today, Mr. Albright follows the struggle for Negro rights with intense interest, and is well informed on current events. He asked questions about the Southern Tenant Farmers Union in Arkansas, and wanted to know what steps were being take to bring to trial the men who attacked Claude Williams and Willie Sue Blagden, union representatives in Arkansas. He praised the Communist Party for twice nominating James W. Ford for the vice-presidency.

“That was a great act,” he said. “your party showed the world where it stood.”

Asked why he had recently abandoned the Republican Party, in whose ranks he served for more than half a century, he replied:

“Do you suppose that at my age I can’t tell the difference between a Lincoln Republican and a Landon Republican? Look at all the rich Democrats who’ve jumped out of the Democratic Party into the Republicans’. The Republican Party has turned against the common fellow, and I’ve turned against the Republican Party.


“When I was born, in 1846, on a plantation in Holly Springs, Mississippi, my mother and father were held by different owners, and when I was 11 years old, my father was sold to a man in Texas. It’s said today that the slaveowners did not separate families, but actually a plantation owner thought no more of selling a man away from his wife, or a mother away from her children, than of sending a cow or a horse out of the state.

“It was only by trickery that I learned to read and write. There was a law on the Mississippi statute books, that if any slave learned to read or write, he was to be punished with 500 lashes on the naked back, and to have the thumb cut off above the second joint. If any master allowed his slave to read or write, he was required to pay the state $500 in damages.

“However, the white children on my plantation often did their lessons in the kitchen, in my mother’s presence and she picked up what information she could, and taught me. I got a primer, and learned to read it.


“We slaves knew very little about what was going on outside our plantations, for our owners aimed to keep us in darkness. But sometimes, by grapevine telegraph, we learned of great events.

“It was impossible to keep the news of John Brown’s attack on Harpers Ferry from spreading. That attack threw a scare into the slave owners. One day not long after the arrest of Brown, a boy in a nearby orchard shot off a pop gun and my mistress ran in terror to the house, screaming that the insurrectionists were coming.

“Like many other slaves, my father ran away from his plantation in Texas and joined the Union forces. I found out later that he was killed fighting in the battle of Vicksburg.”

“When the Emancipation Proclamation was signed, the plantation owners tried to keep the news from us. The Washington government, however, organized an underground information service to inform he slaves of their freedom.

“The slaves, themselves, had to carry the news to one another. That was my first job in the fight for the rights of my people – to tell the slaves that they were free, to keep them informed and in readiness to assist the Union armies whenever the opportunity came.

“I was 15 years old when I became a runner for what we called the “4-Ls” – Lincoln’s Legal Loyal League. I traveled about the plantations within a certain range, and got together small meetings in the cabins to tell the slaves the great news. Some of these slaves in turn would find their way to still other plantations – and so, the story spread. We had to work in dead secrecy; we had knocks and signs and passwords.

“It wasn’t until many years later that I found out how the 4-Ls had been organized. It was started after a committee of six went to Washington to see Lincoln for that purpose.


“On the committee was Frederick Douglass, John Langston and James Lynch, outstanding Negro leaders and three white Abolitionists – Henry Ward Beecher, Charles Sumner and Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe. This committee asked Lincoln to put the Proclamation into effect by informing the slaves. Emissaries were sent out from the North to start the word on its way.

“Speaking of Mrs. Stowe reminds me of how a Northern man put into my hands a copy of Uncle Tom’s Cabin, and how I read it secretly at night. That was while the Civil War was still going on.

“I wasn’t a member of the Constitutional Committee that met in Jackson, the state capital, in 1868, to draft a new constitution for Mississippi, but I helped to elect some of the members to that convention.

“It was the first legislative body in Mississippi in which Negroes took part –think of that, in a state which had a majority of Negroes! There were 74 Negroes out of 100 delegates to that convention. Five of those Negroes were murdered within the next few years by reactionary white planters.

“No wonder the plantation owners hated that convention, and hated the legislatures that followed it. No wonder the rich folks hate the memory of those legislatures to this very day! The convention made a new constitution, the first in the history of the state under which poor people, white and Negro, had any rights.

“Before that time, only the plantation owners could hold office in the state. By the new constitution, there was to be no property qualifications for holding office or for voting.

“The new constitution of our state stopped all the discrimination against the Negroes to travel, in hotel accommodations, in the right to give testimony in court, in the right to vote and serve on juries. The poor whites who sat in the convention favored these measures as much as did the Negro delegates.


“In the very first state legislature that was elected under that constitution there sat 40 Negroes. Every one of the 40 was just out of slavery.

“A Negro, Hiram Revels – I knew him very well – was elected to fill the unexpired term of Jefferson Davis, who had been president of the Confederacy. That was enough to make all the dead slaveowners turn over in their graves.

“I myself was elected to the Mississippi Senate in 1874, being one of the nine Negro Senators. I served four years. I cast the first vote for Blanche K. Bruce, a Negro who succeeded Hiram Revels in the Senate. Both Bruce and Revels made a brilliant showing in Congress.

“One of the first things we did in that legislature was to take steps to wipe out the state debt. There was a lot of talk among the plantation owners about our ‘extravagance,’ and people even today try to discredit our rule at that time by saying that we spent money right and left, wasting the state’s resources. As a matter of fact, the tax rate in Mississippi was less than nine mills on the dollar, and one-fifth of the total we collected was for schools.

“We issued money which became known as ‘Alcorn money,’ after the Republican governor, J. L. Alcorn. We retired it at 25 percent each year until every dollar of debts the state owed was wiped out. Out of that money we built roads and schools and hospitals, trained teachers, kept the state running.


“Our legislature also enacted a Civil Rights Bill that Congress passed. That bill gave equal rights in all fields to every person in the state, regardless of race, creed, color, or previous condition of servitude. But the Supreme Court which was with the slave owners and against us, threw out the national Civil Rights Bill, and that wiped ours out too.

“I taught the first public school in Mississippi. We held our sessions under a shade tree, and later in a cabin, and still later in an old abandoned church.

“The state had no teachers, and we brought in teachers from the North, men and women, white and Negro. The rich whites ostracized these Northern teachers, and tried to make their life hell for them. They called the Northern teachers carpetbaggers, as they did everyone from the North who treated Negroes on a man-to-man basis.


“Before the Civil War there wasn’t a free school in the state, but under the Reconstruction government, we built them in every county, 40 in Marshall County alone. We paid to have every child, Negro and white, schooled equally. Today, they’ve cut down on the educational program, and discriminated against the Negro children, so that out of every educational dollar, the Negro
child gets only 30 cents.

“I became trustee of the State Normal School. We paid off every debt we contracted, and when I turned in my financial report in 1874, there was $150 left in the treasury. I helped supervise the budgets for other higher schools and by careful accounting saved the state more than $30,000.

“We had Negroes in many responsible positions. A Negro was lieutenant governor – his name was Alex Davis and Negroes also filled the offices of Secretary of State, Superintendent of Public Instruction, and Commissioner of Immigration.


“I helped to organize the Negro volunteer militia, which was needed to keep the common people on top and fight off the organized attacks of the landlords and formers slave owners. We drilled frequently – and how the rich folks hated to see us, armed and ready to defend ourselves and our elected government!

“Our militia helped fight off the Klan which was organized by the old slaveowners to try to make us slaves again in all but name.

“I had a couple of narrow escapes from the Klan myself. When I began to teach school, the plantation owners said: ‘That Albright is a dangerous nigger. He’s a detriment to the state.’ One day I got a warning from a friend that I’d better sleep away from home. I took the hint. Sure enough, that night the Klan came to the house and asked for me. My sister said she didn’t know where I was.

“Let me tell you also the story of a friend of mine by the name of Zeke House. Zeke House was a Negro mail carrier. One day, while he was carrying the mail from Holly Springs to Waterford, the Klan seized him and murdered him in the woods, and left him in a ditch. We found his body days later. That was in 1874.

“Another friend of mine, Charles Caldwell, who was a captain of the Negro militia and a member of the Mississippi Senate, was murdered by the Klan also.

“The rich people regained control over Mississippi with the help of the Klan. Unfortunately, they got many of the poor whites on their side. The poor white people felt that their interests lay with the Negroes – for the first time they had voting rights, and school for their children. But the landlords kept poisoning their minds, saying, “You’re voting with the niggers. You’re lining up with niggers.’ The landlords split many of them away from their own best interests.”

Thanks to Steven Niven for sending me the text of this November 2, 1929 Chicago Defender article about Albright.


Mississippi Senator, Ex-Slave, Founder of Hollywood High School

By W. R. Rand

Out in Pueblo, Colo., lives a man whose accomplishments and achievements merit the attention of America. Born a slave, George Washington Albright has had more than his share of honor and success. He is 83 years old.

He was born on the 15th day of August, 1846, on the plantation of Ike Marr, near Holly Springs, Miss., and lived there until sold as a chattle some five years later. All of us family were sold along with him, to a Captain John Albright, who lived a few miles to the north of the Marr plantation.

The slaves of Capt. Albright took his family name. Young Albright lived on the Albright plantation up until his 12th year, when his father, whom he dearly loved, was sold away from the remainder of the family.

In those days there was a cruel law on the statute books of the State of Mississippi, to keep the Black man in darkness. The law read that, “Any slave holder in the confines of this state who shall permit or encourage any of his slaves to read and write shall be fined not more than $500. And any slave found guilty of this offense, shall be given 500 lashes with a rawhide whip and shall suffer his right thumb to be cut off above the second joint.”

Even with the knowledge of that law, young Albright had the desire to learn. His mother was a cook at the big house and was able to secure an alphabet book which one of the white children had cast aside from which George learned to read and write.

The years passed and Sherman’s army marched and slaves were freed. By this time young George was 18 years of age and had gleaned the equivalent of a grade school education through the constant study of any and all books he was able to obtain.

Immediately after Emancipation proclamation George Albright organized and taught the first school of the Race in Marshall county.

Senator Albright cast his first vote in 1867, the year after the 15th amendment was finally ratified. In the Republican county convention of Marshall county, held at Holly Springs in August, 1873, the name of George W. Albright was presented to the convention for the Republican nomination and was accepted with unanimous acclaim.

In the election in November of that year Albright was elected over his white Democratic opponent by the large plurality of 1,600. Senator Albright was the first of the Race to represent his district in the state senate. He put through the first temperance legislation on the statute books of the state of Mississippi.

Senator Albright was recognized as one of the most brilliant men in the senate. In recognition of his ability he was appointed by Governor Adelbert Ames as president of the trustee board of the Holly Springs State normal school.

The Ku Klux Klan became such a power in Mississippi at the close of Senator Albright’s term that in fear for the lives of his family and himself he moved to Emporia, Kan. He took up a homestead and began meeting with financial success in the cattle and hog business. Years later he sold out at a good margin of profit and moved to California, in 1892.

In California his ability as a leader was soon recognized and he was elected to the presidency of the Cahugen school board, a rural school district near Los Angeles.

In 1900 there were nine graduates of the Cahugen school who wished to enter high school, the closest being in Los Angeles and a prohibitive rate of tuition was charged by the Los Angeles school board.

Senator Albright, showing his far-sightedness, called a meeting of the seven rural school boards that like the Cahugen board had no high school for their graduates. At the meeting he proposed that seven boards band themselves together and issue bonds to build a high school in the village of Hollywood.

The proposal met with the approval of the seven boards and the bonds were issued and the Hollywood high school came into being. The present day Hollywood high school is quartered on the same site purchased because of Mr. Albright’s far-sightedness.

George Washington Albright